Almost all over the world there are various kinds of plants that live. Plants are divided into three groups, namely macroscopic algae, spore plants and seed plants. Plants are divided into two subdivisions namely gymnosperms (plants with open seeds) and angiosperms (plants with closed seeds). The characteristics of closed seed plants or angiosperms are plants that have closed seeds and also almost all angiosperm plants produce flowers.
In this world most of the living plants are species of angiosperm plants. Angiosperm plants have many benefits in life for both humans and animals. Angiosperms are divided into monocots and dicots. In this discussion, we will discuss the meaning of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants. Check out the discussion.
Definition of Dicotyledonous Plants
Dicotyledonous plants are plants that have two seeds where when the seeds germinate, the seed pieces will split into two institutional leaves. While the dicotyledonous stem structure consists of bark, wood and pith. On the outside of the stem consists of several tissues such as epidermis, cambium, cortex and phloem. Dicot plants have roots that have xylem surrounded by phloem. Each endodermal cell is equipped with a cascalar band which has a function to prevent water from entering from the cortex to the endodermis. Flower organs in dicotyledonous plants are generally in multiples of four or five. Dicotyledonous plants are divided into several families including:
Papilionaceae or the legume tribe is a plant that belongs to dicotyledonous plants. The main characteristic of the Papilionaceae plants is that they have flowers that are shaped like butterflies and have a flower crown of 5 pieces. Papilionaceae have dicotyledonous or bicotyledonous seeds. Examples of Papillionaceae are green beans, kidney beans and soybeans.
Solanaceae is a plant that has five flower petals. In addition, the fruit in Solanceae is located on the base of the flower and Solanaceae has two layers of fruit walls. Examples of solanaceae plants are tomatoes and eggplants.
Euphorbiaceae is a dicotyledonous plant. The characteristics of euphorbiaceae plants include having the shape of a leaf bone that is fingered. Examples of plants that are included in the Euphorbiaceae are rubber, jatropha and cassava.
Apart from Papilionaceae, Solanaceae, Euphorbiaceae, several families belonging to dicotyledonous plants include Myrteceae, Rosaeae and Crusiferae. Examples of plants belonging to the myrteceae are water guava, guava, salam, eucalyptus and cloves. While examples of rosaeae are roses, apples, pears and strawberries and examples of crusiferae are cabbage, mustard greens and radishes.
Definition of Monocot Plants
Monocot plants are plants that have one seed or a single seed. While the anatomical structure of monocot plant stems, there is a sclerenchyma network that has a function to strengthen and protect the stem of monocot plants. Phloem and xylem vessels in monocotyledonous plants are surrounded by a slerenchyma sheath, unlike dicotyledonous plants, monocot plants do not have a cambium. The roots of monocots are fibrous roots. And the arrangement of flowers in monocot plants is to have the number of flower crowns in multiples of three. Dicotyledonous plants are divided into several families including:
Gramineae or grass plants are included in monocot plants. This plant has the characteristics of parallel leaf shape, besides that it has a hollow stem and has fibrous roots. Examples of gramineae are corn, rice and wheat. Gramineae plants are usually used as staple food sources.
Palmae are plants that have pinnate leaves. While the shape of the stem is unbranched and has a fibrous root form. Examples of plants belonging to the palmae family are coconut and sago.
Musaceae or areca nut is a monocot plant. The characteristics are that it has a pseudo stem, has a pinnate leaf shape and has a flower shape like a wreath. An example of a plant that belongs to the Musaceae is the banana tree.
Zingiberaceae or gingers are plants that have fibrous roots. While the flower crown is three with a shape like a tube. Examples of Zingiberaceae plants are turmeric, kencur and ginger.
Orchidaceae or family of orchids are plants that live epiphytes. Orchidaceae are plants that have special cells that have benefits for plants attached to other plants. Examples of the Orchidaceae are various orchids and vanilla flowers.