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Characteristics of Birds (Aves)

Birds are one of the animals that have the ability to fly. All types of birds are included in the Aves species. There are many types of species that belong to the class Aves. Starting from the birds that we commonly see, namely pigeons, to birds that can only fly up to 8 meters, namely the ostrich. The entire aves family studied there are about 9000 species spread throughout the world. We can group the types of Aves based on several criteria which we will describe later below.

How Animals Protect themselves

Animal Grouping

If we look physically from the Aves family or species of birds. We will find the head, legs, body and wings. One of the characteristics of the Aves family is the wings. And family aves have beaks to process food and do not have teeth. Because birds can be grouped based on their food and their feet are adapted to where they live. Here are 15 characteristics of birds that are around us:

1. Feather

Characteristics of Birds

All types of aves species must have fur to cover their bodies. The feathers found in birds are made of keratin. Keratin is a substance that we usually find in hair and nail-forming substances in other species. The function of feathers in birds is to cover the body of the bird. In addition, feathers also function to maintain the body temperature of the bird so that the bird can adapt to hot and cold temperatures. Birds also use their feathers to help themselves fly. Also read: Characteristics of Vertebrates.

2. Beak

Characteristics of Birds

Birds have various types of beaks on their heads. The beak is used to get the food it eats. Therefore, each type of bird species must have a different beak depending on what it eats. Bird's beak is also made of a strong keratin substance so that the bird's beak does not need teeth to eat.

Even though they don't have teeth, there are some birds that have a tomia or sharp part in their beak for tearing food. Because the way birds eat their food is to cut it into small pieces not by chewing. There are also types of birds that have wide beaks such as ducks and ducks that are useful for taking food in the water.

3. Wings

Characteristics of Birds

Wings are the hallmark of the Aves species. The wings are protected by feathers, these feathers serve as a tool for birds to fly. Besides being supported by wings, birds have strong and curved pectoral muscles, it helps birds in lifting their wings so they can fly higher. There are differences in the function of wings in each bird species. Like an eagle that has narrow wings so it can fly down. Also read: Sexual Reproduction in Animals.

4. Eggs

Characteristics of Birds

There are several types of eggs that are owned by bird species. There are various forms and patterns. Eggs in birds are made of shells that have lime so they are safe from attacks by other animals. Eggs are usually given warmth from the mother in the cage she made. The embryo inside the egg receives nutrients from the yolk and the egg white from inside the egg. There is a unique fact from birds, most of which keep eggs from attacks by other animals are males, not females. Also read: Examples of Acid Solutions.

5. Bones

Characteristics of Birds

Unlike other living things. Most of the bones that birds have are not as strong as other animals. That's because most of the time birds are in the air so birds don't need to have strong bones. Bird bones are small and fragile.

However, there is one type of bird species that has strong bones, namely the ostrich. Because the ostrich can only fly as high as a maximum of 8 meters so most of its life is on land. Strong ostrich bones are used for kicking.

The bone structure of the aves species is also unique. The bones formed in this species are similar to the structure of a honeycomb, strong but light. In the shoulder girdle, there is a substance called the coracoid, the scapula and one pair of clavicles. These three substances fuse and form a hole (foramen trioseum). The opening foramen trioseum serves as a bird muscle used for flight.

6. Oil Glands On The Tail

bird tail

The oil glands in birds that are located on the tail are used to protect the bird's feathers from water. Because water can prevent birds from flying. The sebaceous glands that produce oil are called sebum. In addition to protecting the bird's feathers from water, the oil glands on the tail are also able to preen so that it attracts the attention of the female.

Read also:

 Difference Between Food Chain and Food Web

Difference Between Electrolyte and Non-Electrolyte Solution

7. Endothermic

Characteristics of Birds

Birds are endothermic. Endothermic is an event where the bird reacts to absorb energy from the environment when the bird's reaction occurs. Usually what is produced from endothermic is cold temperatures. Because of this the bird will not overheat when he is flying high. In addition to the Aves species, most of the mammals are endothermic creatures. Because most of the mammals have children which they give warmth to them.

Also read: Types of Adaptation, Types of Symbiosis.

8. Navigation Ability


Many think that the navigation of birds is to use the sun. However, it was recently discovered that the navigation was incorrect. Actually birds use magnets from the earth's geomagnetic. Earth's geomagnetism is an invisible magnetic force that revolves around the earth. Molten iron and nickel revolve in the Earth's outer core and generate this field.

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